Surface tension of water, liquids and aqueous solutions (table of values)

Surface tension

Surface tensionis caused by the attraction of the molecules into the direction of the fluid in the surface layer. This attraction causes the curvature of the free surface of the liquid and creates a certain pressure difference:

DP = S (1 / R1 + 1 / R2) $

Where Δp represents the pressure difference, and R1 and R2- principal radii of curvature of the liquid surface. The value of δ denotes the surface tension at the liquid - gas, δ is usually measured in dyne/cm (equivalent to the free surface energy in ergs/cm2). When two (not mutually soluble) liquids talking about surface tension at the boundary of the two liquids; upon contact of the liquid and solid talk about the phenomena of wetting and wetting (capillary phenomena).

Surface tensiondecreases with increasing temperature of the liquid and its critical temperature is equal to zero. For many liquids formula applies:

-d/dt [δ (M/p)2/3 = 2,12

(M- molecular weight, p- the density, t- temperature).

Table water surface tension at the air boundary

T, 0C

0

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

70

80

100

 d

75.7

74.2

73.5

72.75

72.0

71.2

69.6

67.9

66.2

64.4

62.6

58.8

Table surface tension of various liquids

(A - on the air interface, V - on the border with the vapors of the same liquid) 

Liquid

On the border

Temperature 0C

 d

Liquid

On the border

Temperature 0C

d

Inorganics

Aluminum

A

700

840

Sodium iodide

N2

861

776

Nitrogen

V

-183

6.2

Sodium sulfate

N2

900

195

Gold

A

1130

1102

Sodium fluoride

N2

1010

200

Cadmium

N2

320

630

Sodium chloride

N2

908

106

Potassium

CO2

64

410

Mercury

V

20

472

Potassium chloride

N2

909

88

Mercury

V

100

456

Oxygen

A

-183

13.1

Lead

CO2

350

453

Sodium

CO2

90

290

Lead chloride

A

490

138

Organic substances

Aniline

V

20

42.9

N-Propyl alcohol

V

20

23.8

Acetone

V

20

23.7

Ethanol

A

0

24.1

Acetone

V

50

20.0

Ethanol

V

10

23.6

Benzene

A

10

30.22

Ethanol

V

20

22.8

Benzene

A

20

28.88

Ethanol

V

thirty

21.9

Bromoform

V

20

41.5

Toluene

V

20

28.4

N-Hexane

A

20

18.4

Carbon chloride 4-

V

20

27.0

Glycerol

A

20

63.4

Carbon chloride 4-

V

100

17.3

N-butyric acid

A

20

26.8

Phenol

A

20

40.9

Chisloth oleinovaya

A

20

32.5

Chloroform

A

20

27.14

Acetic acid

V

20

27.8

Ethyl bromide

V

20

24.2

N-octane

A

20

21.8

Ethyl acetate

V

20

23.6

Serouglerod

V

20

32.3

Ethyl Ether

V

20

16.96

N-Spirt butilovyj

A

20

24.6

Ethyl Ether

V

50

13.4

Methyl alcohol

A

0

24.5

 

 

 

 

Methyl alcohol

A

20

22.6

 

 

 

 

Methyl alcohol

V

50

20.2

 

 

 

 

 

Table surface tension of water solutions of the salts

Salt

δ at 200C.

Salt

δ at 200C.

KCI

1.4

NaNO3

1.2

NaCl

1.64

Na2SO4

2.7

At2CO3

2.7

   

Table interfacial tension between two liquids at 20 0C

Liquids

δ, dyne / cm

Liquids

δ, dyne / cm

WATER AND

Chloroform

28

Benzene

35

Ethyl Ether

10

N-heptane

51

MERCURY AND

Acid geptolovaya

7

Acetone

390

Paraffin oil

48

Benzene

357

Olive oil

20

N-heptane

379

N-octane

51

Chisloth oleinovaya

322

Carbon

45

Chloroform

357

 


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