# Surface tension of water, liquids and aqueous solutions (table of values)

### Surface tension

Surface tensionis caused by the attraction of the molecules into the direction of the fluid in the surface layer. This attraction causes the curvature of the free surface of the liquid and creates a certain pressure difference:

DP = S (1 / R1 + 1 / R2) \$

Where Δp represents the pressure difference, and R1 and R2- principal radii of curvature of the liquid surface. The value of δ denotes the surface tension at the liquid - gas, δ is usually measured in dyne/cm (equivalent to the free surface energy in ergs/cm2). When two (not mutually soluble) liquids talking about surface tension at the boundary of the two liquids; upon contact of the liquid and solid talk about the phenomena of wetting and wetting (capillary phenomena).

Surface tensiondecreases with increasing temperature of the liquid and its critical temperature is equal to zero. For many liquids formula applies:

-d/dt [δ (M/p)2/3 = 2,12

(M- molecular weight, p- the density, t- temperature).

### Table water surface tension at the air boundary

 T, 0C 0 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 d 75.7 74.2 73.5 72.75 72 71.2 69.6 67.9 66.2 64.4 62.6 58.8

### Table surface tension of various liquids

(A - on the air interface, V - on the border with the vapors of the same liquid)

 Liquid On the border Temperature 0C d Liquid On the border Temperature 0C d Inorganics Aluminum A 700 840 Sodium iodide N2 861 776 Nitrogen V -183 6.2 Sodium sulfate N2 900 195 Gold A 1130 1102 Sodium fluoride N2 1010 200 Cadmium N2 320 630 Sodium chloride N2 908 106 Potassium CO2 64 410 Mercury V 20 472 Potassium chloride N2 909 88 Mercury V 100 456 Oxygen A -183 13.1 Lead CO2 350 453 Sodium CO2 90 290 Lead chloride A 490 138 Organic substances Aniline V 20 42.9 N-Propyl alcohol V 20 23.8 Acetone V 20 23.7 Ethanol A 0 24.1 Acetone V 50 20.0 Ethanol V 10 23.6 Benzene A 10 30.22 Ethanol V 20 22.8 Benzene A 20 28.88 Ethanol V thirty 21.9 Bromoform V 20 41.5 Toluene V 20 28.4 N-Hexane A 20 18.4 Carbon chloride 4- V 20 27.0 Glycerol A 20 63.4 Carbon chloride 4- V 100 17.3 N-butyric acid A 20 26.8 Phenol A 20 40.9 Chisloth oleinovaya A 20 32.5 Chloroform A 20 27.14 Acetic acid V 20 27.8 Ethyl bromide V 20 24.2 N-octane A 20 21.8 Ethyl acetate V 20 23.6 Serouglerod V 20 32.3 Ethyl Ether V 20 16.96 N-Spirt butilovyj A 20 24.6 Ethyl Ether V 50 13.4 Methyl alcohol A 0 24.5 Methyl alcohol A 20 22.6 Methyl alcohol V 50 20.2

### Table surface tension of water solutions of the salts

 Salt δ at 200C. Salt δ at 200C. KCI 1.4 NaNO3 1.2 NaCl 1.64 Na2SO4 2.7 At2CO3 2.7

### Table interfacial tension between two liquids at 20 0C

 Liquids δ, dyne / cm Liquids δ, dyne / cm WATER AND Chloroform 28 Benzene 35 Ethyl Ether 10 N-heptane 51 MERCURY AND Acid geptolovaya 7 Acetone 390 Paraffin oil 48 Benzene 357 Olive oil 20 N-heptane 379 N-octane 51 Chisloth oleinovaya 322 Carbon 45 Chloroform 357