Distribution of electrons in atoms of elements

Energy state and the arrangement of electrons in shells or layers of atoms is determined by four numbers, called quantum, and is usually denoted by the symbols n, l, s and j; the quantum numbers are, discontinuous, or discrete, in nature, i.e. available only to certain discrete values, integer or half-integer.

In the table given below:

1) letter symbolselectron shells;

2) the related values of main and side quantum numbers;

3) symbols of the subgroups;

4) theoretically calculatedthe maximum number of electrons in sub-groups, and in membranes in General.

Shell

К

L

М

N

O

P

Q

n

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

l

0

0

1

0

1

2

 0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

4

 0

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Subgroup

s

s

p

s

p

d

 s

p

d

f

s

p

d

f

g

s

p

d

f

g

h

s

p

d

f

g

h

i

The number of electrons in the subset

2

2

6

2

6

10

 2

6

10

14

2

6

10

14

18

2

6

10

14

18

22

2

6

10

14

18

22

26

The number of electrons in the envelope (2n2)

2

8

18

32

50

72

98

The table shows the number of electrons in the shell and their distribution in the subgroups for all of the chemical elements, including transuranic. Numerical data in this table have been established as a result of very careful spectroscopic studies.

 Z

chemical element

К

L

M

N

0

P

Q

0

0 1

0 1 2

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

0 1 2

 

1-st period

1

2

Н

Не

1

2

           

2-nd period

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

U

Be

В

С

N

О

F

Ne

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

         

3-rd period

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

1

2

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

       

4-th period

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

К

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6 1

2 6 2

2 6 3

2 6 5

2 6 5

2 6 6

2 6 7

2 6 8

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

1

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

2

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

     

5-th period

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Те

Y

Xe

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6

2 6

2 1 1

2 6 2

2 6 4

2 6 5

2 6 6

2 6 7

2 6 8

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

   

6-th period

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

La

Ce

Rr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tu

Yb

Lu

Hf

Та

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10 1

2 6 10 2

2 6 10 3

2 6 10 4

2 6 10 5

2 6 10 6

2 6 10 7

2 6 10 8

2 6 10 9

2 6 10 10

2 6 10 11

2 6 10 12

2 6 10 13

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6

2 6

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 2

2 6 3

2 6 4

2 6 5

2 6 6

2 6 7

2 6 8

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2 1

2 2

2 3

2 4

2 5

2 6

 

7-th period

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

Fr

Ra

Ac

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

En

Fm

Mv

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10 14

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10

2 6 10 1

2 6 10 2

2 6 10 3

2 6 10 4

2 6 10 5

2 6 10 6

2 6 10 7

2 6 10 8

2 6 10 8

2 6 10 8

2 6 10 8

2 6 10 8

2 6

2 6

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 1

2 6 2

2 6 3

2 6 4

2 6 5

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2


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